The paternity test is a laboratory analysis that establishes, by scientific methods, with certainty, the biological parents of a child. In order to perform a DNA paternity test, it is necessary to take biological samples from the child, father, and mother – cells from the oral mucosa. DNA testing identifies the similarity of the genetic material and calculates the paternity index, confirming or refuting paternity.
Performing a paternity test is helpful in quickly and accurately clarifying uncertain situations. Please note that the taking of evidence for the paternity test is carried out only at the request of the persons concerned and obligatorily with the signing of a consent form.
The parents of the minor child will receive complete information about the procedure.
DNA paternity tests give accurate results, determining with 100% accuracy whether a man is the biological father of a child.
What is a paternity DNA test?
Advances in medical science and technology have led to the possibility of genetic testing to clarify paternity, both for medical and legal reasons.
The genetic material is unique to each individual, is inherited from both parents equally. Genes are found in every cell of the body and are stored in the nucleus as chromosomes. Humans normally have about 30,000 different genes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, abbreviated DNA, is the genetic material that the individual inherits from his parents and is found in the cell nucleus, organized in the form of chromosomes.
The paternity test analyzes and compares a series of 16 segments of the DNA structure, called STR (Short Tandem Repeats) markers.
These segments are a series of smaller, repetitive segments located on different chromosomes. STR segments are unique to each individual and a genetic profile can be created for each person based on them.
Genetic testing multiplies STR segments by a polymerization reaction (PCR) and compares several DNA sequences to establish the correspondence and similarity of genetic profiles.
How is the paternity test performed?
DNA testing can be performed by analyzing a sample from the oral mucosa (epithelial cells of the oral mucosa), taken by scraping from the inner face of the cheek.
Because DNA is the same in every cell of the human body, the accuracy of tests performed on blood or oral mucosa is virtually the same.
Most people prefer to take cells from the oral mucosa because the harvesting method is not invasive.
Oral epithelial cells are harvested using a sterile harvester and a medium-sized plastic container.
The collector is inserted into the oral cavity and carefully scrapes epithelial cells from the inner surface
of the cheek without creating discomfort or nausea.
Oral mucosa samples are taken from both mother and father.
as concomitant analysis of the maternal genetic profile increases the safety and confidence of the test.
However, the taking of samples from the mother is not obligatory for establishing the degree of kinship between the presumed father and the child.
The test is performed in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, starting with weeks 16-20 by collecting a small amount of 1.5 – 2 ml of amniotic fluid under ultrasound guidance, using a long, thin needle.
The risk of fetal harm and miscarriage is minimal. Side effects may include contractions, amniotic fluid leakage, and vaginal bleeding. A gynecologist is required to perform this analysis
Are our paternity tests safe?
DNA testing is the basis of decades of scientific research.
the working methodology is rigorous, and well-developed, which ensures the safety and accuracy of the results.
The working procedures are standardized and are based on the use of state-of-the-art equipment
and commercial kits used internationally and recognized throughout the scientific world.
It should be noted that the success rate of DNA testing depends directly on the quantity and quality of DNA analyzed and taken.
Paternity tests are usually 99.9% safe; errors may occur during the harvesting process when the sample is contaminated with foreign DNA.
When is a paternity test performed?
Establishing paternity can be of legal or personal importance. The paternity test can also be performed at the request of the courts, in order to establish custody of the child.
but more frequently it is performed at the request of interested individuals.
DNA paternity tests can be performed at any age of the child or parents. There are also ways to determine paternity before the baby is born.
DNA tests can be performed with biological samples taken.
the fetus (amniotic fluid, placenta), both in the first trimester of pregnancy and in the second
The maternity test is similar to the paternity test, analyzing the genetic profiles of the alleged mother and, of course, the child.
Maternity testing analyzes mitochondrial DNA, which is transmitted exclusively through the maternal line (from mother to child, regardless of gender).
The analysis can also be performed by genetic testing of a first-degree relative of the alleged mother (sister, brother, or mother).
Genetic testing can determine if two or more people have a degree of sibling kinship. The sibling test between two people can be done by analyzing the maternal mitochondrial DNA.
if the people in question are male, the Y chromosome is analyzed, which is transmitted on the paternal line.
SNP microarray (single nucleotide polymorphism microarray)
is a non-invasive technology for determining paternity by analyzing circulating fetal DNA extracted from maternal blood. The test can be performed starting from week 10 of pregnancy.
The fetal DNA, the mother’s DNA, and the DNA of the presumed father are analyzed. 317,000 genetic markers represented by nucleotides are analyzed and paternity is established based on their complementarity.
The accuracy of this test is 99.9% and it tends to replace invasive tests such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus biopsy.
Myths about paternity tests
Not infrequently, the paternity test is confused with the determination of blood type and Rh system. Blood type is a genetic factor inherited from parents, and so is Rh. However, determining a blood type is not a paternity test and cannot determine a child’s biological parents.